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A Novel and Efficient De-duplication System For HDFS
文章来源:www.ccsmyanmar.com   发布者:学生毕业作品网站  

Big Data is a frequent generation and updating of large volume of data around the clock across the globe by the users. Handling large volume of data in a real time environment is a challenging task.
Distributed File System is one of the strategy to handle large volume of data in the real time. Distributed file system is a collection of independent computers that appear to the users of the system as a single coherent system. In Distributed file system common files can be shared between the nodes, the drawbacks are scalability, replication, availability and very expensive to buy a hardware server. To overcome this issue Hadoop Distributed File System came into existence. Hadoop distributed file system to run on cluster of commodity hardware like personal computer and laptop. HDFS provides the scalable, fault-tolerance, cost-efficient storage for Bigdata. Hadoop Distributed File System support data duplication to achieve high data reliability. However additional utilization of storage space is required due to duplication strategy.
HDFS Storage space can be managed efficiently by implementing De-duplication techniques. The objective of the research is to eliminate file duplication by implementing De-duplication strategy. A novel and efficient De-duplication system using HDFS approach is introduced in this research work. To implement De-duplication strategy, hash values are computed for files using MD5 and SHA1 algorithms .The generated hash value for a file is checked with the existing file to identify the presence of duplication. If duplication exists, the system will not allow the user to upload the duplicate copy to the HDFS. Hence memory utilization is handled efficiently in HDFS.
Hadoop1 provides a distributed filesystem and a framework for the analysis and transformation of very large data sets using the MapReduce [DG04] paradigm. While the interface to HDFS is patterned after the Unix filesystem, faithfulness to standards was sacrificed in favor of improved performance for the applications at hand.
An important characteristic of Hadoop is the partitioning of data and computation across many (thousands) of hosts, and the execution of application computations in parallel close to their data. A Hadoop cluster scales computation capacity, storage capacity and I/O bandwidth by simply adding commodity servers. Hadoop clusters at Yahoo! span 40,000 servers, and store 40 petabytes of application data, with the largest cluster being 4000 servers. One hundred other organizations worldwide report using Hadoop.
HDFS stores filesystem metadata and application data separately. As in other distributed filesystems, like PVFS [CIRT00], Lustre2, and GFS [GGL03], HDFS stores metadata on a dedicated server, called the NameNode. Application data are stored on other servers called DataNodes. All servers are fully connected and communicate with each other using TCP-based protocols. Unlike Lustre and PVFS, the DataNodes in HDFS do not rely on data protection mechanisms such as RAID to make the data durable. Instead, like GFS, the file content is replicated on multiple DataNodes for reliability. While ensuring data durability, this strategy has the added advantage that data transfer bandwidth is multiplied, and there are more opportunities for locating computation near the needed data.
   The HDFS namespace is a hierarchy of files and directories. Files and directories are represented on the NameNode by inodes. Inodes record attributes like permissions, modification and access times, namespace and disk space quotas. The file content is split into large blocks (typically 128 megabytes, but user selectable file-by-file), and each block of the file is independently replicated at multiple DataNodes (typically three, but user selectable file-by-file). The NameNode maintains the namespace tree and the mapping of blocks to DataNodes. The current design has a single NameNode for each cluster. The cluster can have thousands of DataNodes and tens of thousands of HDFS clients per cluster, as each DataNode may execute multiple application tasks concurrently.
The inodes and the list of blocks that define the metadata of the name system are called the image. NameNode keeps the entire namespace image in RAM. The persistent record of the image stored in the NameNode's local native filesystem is called a checkpoint. The NameNode records changes to HDFS in a write-ahead log called the journal in its local native filesystem. The location of block replicas are not part of the persistent checkpoint.
Each client-initiated transaction is recorded in the journal, and the journal file is flushed and synced before the acknowledgment is sent to the client. The checkpoint file is never changed by the NameNode; a new file is written when a checkpoint is created during restart, when requested by the administrator, or by the CheckpointNode described in the next section. During startup the NameNode initializes the namespace image from the checkpoint, and then replays changes from the journal. A new checkpoint and an empty journal are written back to the storage directories before the NameNode starts serving clients.
For improved durability, redundant copies of the checkpoint and journal are typically stored on multiple independent local volumes and at remote NFS servers. The first choice prevents loss from a single volume failure, and the second choice protects against failure of the entire node. If the NameNode encounters an error writing the journal to one of the storage directories it automatically excludes that directory from the list of storage directories. The NameNode automatically shuts itself down if no storage directory is available.
The NameNode is a multithreaded system and processes requests simultaneously from multiple clients. Saving a transaction to disk becomes a bottleneck since all other threads need to wait until the synchronous flush-and-sync procedure initiated by one of them is complete. In order to optimize this process, the NameNode batches multiple transactions. When one of the NameNode's threads initiates a flush-and-sync operation, all the transactions batched at that time are committed together. Remaining threads only need to check that their transactions have been saved and do not need to initiate a flush-and-sync operation.
Each block replica on a DataNode is represented by two files in the local native filesystem. The first file contains the data itself and the second file records the block's metadata including checksums for the data and the generation stamp. The size of the data file equals the actual length of the block and does not require extra space to round it up to the nominal block size as in traditional filesystems. Thus, if a block is half full it needs only half of the space of the full block on the local drive.
During startup each DataNode connects to the NameNode and performs a handshake. The purpose of the handshake is to verify the namespace ID and the software version of the DataNode. If either does not match that of the NameNode, the DataNode automatically shuts down.
The namespace ID is assigned to the filesystem instance when it is formatted. The namespace ID is persistently stored on all nodes of the cluster. Nodes with a different namespace ID will not be able to join the cluster, thus protecting the integrity of the filesystem. A DataNode that is newly initialized and without any namespace ID is permitted to join the cluster and receive the cluster's namespace ID.
After the handshake the DataNode registers with the NameNode. DataNodes persistently store their unique storage IDs. The storage ID is an internal identifier of the DataNode, which makes it recognizable even if it is restarted with a different IP address or port. The storage ID is assigned to the DataNode when it registers with the NameNode for the first time and never changes after that.
A DataNode identifies block replicas in its possession to the NameNode by sending a block report. A block report contains the block ID, the generation stamp and the length for each block replica the server hosts. The first block report is sent immediately after the DataNode registration. Subsequent block reports are sent every hour and provide the NameNode with an up-to-date view of where block replicas are located on the cluster.
During normal operation DataNodes send heartbeats to the NameNode to confirm that the DataNode is operating and the block replicas it hosts are available. The default heartbeat interval is three seconds. If the NameNode does not receive a heartbeat from a DataNode in ten minutes the NameNode considers the DataNode to be out of service and the block replicas hosted by that DataNode to be unavailable. The NameNode then schedules creation of new replicas of those blocks on other DataNodes.
Heartbeats from a DataNode also carry information about total storage capacity, fraction of storage in use, and the number of data transfers currently in progress. These statistics are used for the NameNode's block allocation and load balancing decisions.
The NameNode does not directly send requests to DataNodes. It uses replies to heartbeats to send instructions to the DataNodes. The instructions include commands to replicate blocks to other nodes, remove local block replicas, re-register and send an immediate block report, and shut down the node.
These commands are important for maintaining the overall system integrity and therefore it is critical to keep heartbeats frequent even on big clusters. The NameNode can process thousands of heartbeats per second without affecting other NameNode operations.
User applications access the filesystem using the HDFS client, a library that exports the HDFS filesystem interface.
Like most conventional filesystems, HDFS supports operations to read, write and delete files, and operations to create and delete directories. The user references files and directories by paths in the namespace. The user application does not need to know that filesystem metadata and storage are on different servers, or that blocks have multiple replicas.
When an application reads a file, the HDFS client first asks the NameNode for the list of DataNodes that host replicas of the blocks of the file. The list is sorted by the network topology distance from the client. The client contacts a DataNode directly and requests the transfer of the desired block. When a client writes, it first asks the NameNode to choose DataNodes to host replicas of the first block of the file. The client organizes a pipeline from node-to-node and sends the data. When the first block is filled, the client requests new DataNodes to be chosen to host replicas of the next block. A new pipeline is organized, and the client sends the further bytes of the file. Choice of DataNodes for each block is likely to be different. The interactions among the client, the NameNode and the DataNodes are illustrated in Figure 8.1.
An application adds data to HDFS by creating a new file and writing the data to it. After the file is closed, the bytes written cannot be altered or removed except that new data can be added to the file by reopening the file for append. HDFS implements a single-writer, multiple-reader model.
The HDFS client that opens a file for writing is granted a lease for the file; no other client can write to the file. The writing client periodically renews the lease by sending a heartbeat to the NameNode. When the file is closed, the lease is revoked. The lease duration is bound by a soft limit and a hard limit. Until the soft limit expires, the writer is certain of exclusive access to the file. If the soft limit expires and the client fails to close the file or renew the lease, another client can preempt the lease. If after the hard limit expires (one hour) and the client has failed to renew the lease, HDFS assumes that the client has quit and will automatically close the file on behalf of the writer, and recover the lease. The writer's lease does not prevent other clients from reading the file; a file may have many concurrent readers.
An HDFS file consists of blocks. When there is a need for a new block, the NameNode allocates a block with a unique block ID and determines a list of DataNodes to host replicas of the block. The DataNodes form a pipeline, the order of which minimizes the total network distance from the client to the last DataNode. Bytes are pushed to the pipeline as a sequence of packets. The bytes that an application writes first buffer at the client side. After a packet buffer is filled (typically 64 KB), the data are pushed to the pipeline. The next packet can be pushed to the pipeline before receiving the acknowledgment for the previous packets. The number of outstanding packets is limited by the outstanding packets window size of the client.
After data are written to an HDFS file, HDFS does not provide any guarantee that data are visible to a new reader until the file is closed. If a user application needs the visibility guarantee, it can explicitly call the hflush operation. Then the current packet is immediately pushed to the pipeline, and the hflush operation will wait until all DataNodes in the pipeline acknowledge the successful transmission of the packet. All data written before the hflush operation are then certain to be visible to readers.
If no error occurs, block construction goes through three stages as shown in Figure 8.2 illustrating a pipeline of three DataNodes (DN) and a block of five packets. In the picture, bold lines represent data packets, dashed lines represent acknowledgment messages, and thin lines represent control messages to setup and close the pipeline. Vertical lines represent activity at the client and the three DataNodes where time proceeds from top to bottom. From t0 to t1 is the pipeline setup stage. The interval t1 to t2 is the data streaming stage, where t1 is the time when the first data packet gets sent and t2 is the time that the acknowledgment to the last packet gets received. Here an hflush operation transmits packet 2. The hflush indication travels with the packet data and is not a separate operation. The final interval t2 to t3 is the pipeline close stage for this block.
In a cluster of thousands of nodes, failures of a node (most commonly storage faults) are daily occurrences. A replica stored on a DataNode may become corrupted because of faults in memory, disk, or network. HDFS generates and stores checksums for each data block of an HDFS file. Checksums are verified by the HDFS client while reading to help detect any corruption caused either by client, DataNodes, or network. When a client creates an HDFS file, it computes the checksum sequence for each block and sends it to a DataNode along with the data. A DataNode stores checksums in a metadata file separate from the block's data file. When HDFS reads a file, each block's data and checksums are shipped to the client. The client computes the checksum for the received data and verifies that the newly computed checksums matches the checksums it received. If not, the client notifies the NameNode of the corrupt replica and then fetches a different replica of the block from another DataNode.
When a client opens a file to read, it fetches the list of blocks and the locations of each block replica from the NameNode. The locations of each block are ordered by their distance from the reader. When reading the content of a block, the client tries the closest replica first. If the read attempt fails, the client tries the next replica in sequence. A read may fail if the target DataNode is unavailable, the node no longer hosts a replica of the block, or the replica is found to be corrupt when checksums are tested.
HDFS permits a client to read a file that is open for writing. When reading a file open for writing, the length of the last block still being written is unknown to the NameNode. In this case, the client asks one of the replicas for the latest length before starting to read its content.
The design of HDFS I/O is particularly optimized for batch processing systems, like MapReduce, which require high throughput for sequential reads and writes. Ongoing efforts will improve read/write response time for applications that require real-time data streaming or random access.
For a large cluster, it may not be practical to connect all nodes in a flat topology. A common practice is to spread the nodes across multiple racks. Nodes of a rack share a switch, and rack switches are connected by one or more core switches.       Communication between two nodes in different racks has to go through multiple switches. In most cases, network bandwidth between nodes in the same rack is greater than network bandwidth between nodes in different racks. Figure 8.3 describes a cluster with two racks, each of which contains three nodes.
The NameNode endeavors to ensure that each block always has the intended number of replicas. The NameNode detects that a block has become under- or over-replicated when a block report from a DataNode arrives. When a block becomes over replicated, the NameNode chooses a replica to remove. The NameNode will prefer not to reduce the number of racks that host replicas, and secondly prefer to remove a replica from the DataNode with the least amount of available disk space. The goal is to balance storage utilization across DataNodes without reducing the block's availability.
When a block becomes under-replicated, it is put in the replication priority queue. A block with only one replica has the highest priority, while a block with a number of replicas that is greater than two thirds of its replication factor has the lowest priority. A background thread periodically scans the head of the replication queue to decide where to place new replicas. Block replication follows a similar policy as that of new block placement. If the number of existing replicas is one, HDFS places the next replica on a different rack. In case that the block has two existing replicas, if the two existing replicas are on the same rack, the third replica is placed on a different rack; otherwise, the third replica is placed on a different node in the same rack as an existing replica. Here the goal is to reduce the cost of creating new replicas.
The NameNode also makes sure that not all replicas of a block are located on one rack. If the NameNode detects that a block's replicas end up at one rack, the NameNode treats the block as mis-replicated and replicates the block to a different rack using the same block placement policy described above. After the NameNode receives the notification that the replica is created, the block becomes over-replicated.    The NameNode then will decides to remove an old replica because the over-replication policy prefers not to reduce the number of racks.

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